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This option is new as of ImageMagick 6. It transforms an image from the normal spatial domain to the frequency domain. In the frequency domain, an image is represented as a superposition of complex sinusoidal waves of varying amplitudes. The image x and y coordinates are the possible frequencies along the x and y directions, respectively, and the pixel intensity values are complex numbers that correspond to the sinusoidal wave amplitudes. A single image name is provided as output for this option.

However, the output result will have two components. It is either a two-frame image or two separate images, depending upon whether the image format specified supports multi-frame images. The reason that we get a dual output result is because the frequency domain represents an image using complex numbers, which cannot be visualized directly. Therefore, the complex values are automagically separated into a two-component image representation. The first component is the magnitude of the complex number and the second is the phase of the complex number.

See for example, Complex Numbers. The magnitude and phase component images must be specified using image formats that do not limit the color or compress the image. All of these formats, except PNG support multi-frame images. The input image can be any size, but if not square and even-dimensioned, it is padded automagically to the larger of the width or height of the input image and to an even number of pixels.

The resulting output magnitude and phase images is square at this size. The kind of padding relies on the -virtual-pixel setting. The magnitude image is not scaled and thus generally will contain very small values. As such, the image normally will appear totally black.

In order to view any detail, the magnitude image typically is enhanced with a log function into what is usually called the spectrum. A log function is used to enhance the darker values more in comparison to the lighter values. This can be done, for example, as follows:. The argument to the -evaluate log typically is specified between and 10,, depending upon the amount of detail that one wants to bring out in the spectrum.

Larger values produce more visible detail. Too much detail, however, may hide the important features. The FFTW delegate library is required to use -fft. However, as the real and imaginary components can contain negative values, this requires that IM be configured with HDRI enabled.

In this case, you must use either MIFF, TIF, PFM or MPC formats for the real and imaginary component results, since they are formats that preserve both negative and fractional values without clipping them or truncating the fractional part. Use " -define fourier: See Color Names for a description of how to properly specify the color argument.

Enclose the color specification in quotation marks to prevent the " " or the parentheses from being interpreted by your shell. Use this type of filter when resizing or distorting an image. Use this option to affect the resizing operation of an image during operations such as -resize and -distort.

For example you can use a simple resize filter such as:. The Bessel and Sinc filter is also provided as well as a faster SincFast equivalent form. However these filters are generally useless on their own as they are infinite filters that are being clipped to the filters support size. Their direct use is not recommended except via expert settings see below. Instead these special filter functions are typically windowed by a windowing function that the -filter setting defines.

That is using these functions will define a 'Windowed' filter, appropriate to the operator involved. Also one special self-windowing filter is also provided Lagrange , which will automagically re-adjust its function depending on the current 'support' or 'lobes' expert settings see below.

If you do not select a filter with this option, the filter defaults to Mitchell for a colormapped image, an image with a matte channel, or if the image is enlarged.

Otherwise the filter default to Lanczos. You can modify how the filter behaves as it scales your image through the use of these expert settings see also -define and -set: To extract the data for a raw windowing function, combine it with a ' Box ' filter. For example the ' Welch parabolic windowing function. Note that the use of expert options is provided for image processing experts who have studied and understand how resize filters work. Without this knowledge, and an understanding of the definition of the actual filters involved, using expert settings are more likely to be detrimental to your image resizing.

This is a simple alias for the -layers method "flatten". Flood fill starts from the given 'seed point' which is not gravity affected. Any color that matches within -fuzz color distance of the given color argument, connected to that 'seed point' will be replaced with the current -fill color. Note that if the pixel at the 'seed point' does not itself match the given color according to -fuzz , then no action will be taken.

This operator works more like the -opaque option, than a more general flood fill that reads the matching color directly at the 'seed point'. For this form of flood fill, look at -draw and its 'color floodfill' drawing method. To print a complete list of fonts, use the -list font option for versions prior to 6. In addition to the fonts specified by the above pre-defined list, you can also specify a font from a specific source. For other settings that affect fonts, see the options -family , -stretch , -style , and -weight.

When used with the mogrify utility, this option converts any image to the image format you specify. For a list of image format types supported by ImageMagick, use -list format. By default the file is written to its original name. However, if the filename extension matches a supported format, the extension is replaced with the image format type specified with -format. For example, if you specify tiff as the format type and the input image filename is image. See Format and Print Image Properties for an explanation on how to specify the argument to this option.

The color of the border is specified with the -mattecolor command line option. The size portion of the geometry argument indicates the amount of extra width and height that is added to the dimensions of the image. If no offsets are given in the geometry argument, then the border added is a solid color. Offsets x and y , if present, specify that the width and height of the border is partitioned to form an outer bevel of thickness x pixels and an inner bevel of thickness y pixels.

Negative offsets make no sense as frame arguments. The -frame option is affected by the current -compose setting and assumes that this is using the default ' Over ' composition method. It generates an image of the appropriate size with the current -bordercolor setting, and then draws the frame of four distinct colors close to the current -mattecolor.

The original image is then overlaid onto center of this image. This operator performs calculations based on the given arguments to modify each of the color values for each previously set -channel in the image.

See -evaluate for details concerning how the results of the calculations are handled. This is can be considered a multi-argument version of the -evaluate operator. Added in ImageMagick 6. Here, parameters is a comma-separated list of numerical values. The number of values varies depending on which function is selected. Choose the function from:. To print a complete list of -function operators, use -list function. The Polynomial function takes an arbitrary number of parameters, these being the coefficients of a polynomial, in decreasing order of degree.

The Polynomial function can be used in place of Set the constant polynomial and Add , Divide , Multiply , and Subtract some linear polynomials of the -evaluate operator. The -level operator also affects channels linearly. The Polynomial function gives great versatility, since polynomials can be used to fit any continuous curve to any degree of accuracy desired.

The Sinusoid function can be used to vary the channel values sinusoidally by setting frequency, phase shift, amplitude, and a bias. These values are given as one to four parameters, as follows,. The result is that if a pixel's normalized channel value is originally u , its resulting normalized value is given by. For example, the following generates a curve that starts and ends at 0.

The default values of amp and bias are both. The default for phase is 0. The Sinusoid function generalizes Sin and Cos of the -evaluate operator by allowing varying amplitude, phase and bias.

The correspondence is as follows. The ArcSin function generates the inverse curve of a Sinusoid, and can be used to generate cylindrical distortion and displacement maps. The curve can be adjusted relative to both the input values and output range of values. Defaulting to values covering the full range from 0. The ArcTan function generates a curve that smooth crosses from limit values at infinities, though a center using the given slope value.

All these values can be adjusted via the arguments. A number of algorithms search for a target color. By default the color must be exact. Use this option to match colors that are close to the target color in RGB space. For example, if you want to automagically trim the edges of an image with -trim but the image was scanned and the target background color may differ by a small amount.

This option can account for these differences. If the first character of expression is , the expression is read from a file titled by the remaining characters in the string. The same color image displayed on two different workstations may look different due to differences in the display monitor.

Use gamma correction to adjust for this color difference. Reasonable values extend from 0. Gamma less than 1. Large adjustments to image gamma may result in the loss of some image information if the pixel quantum size is only eight bits quantum range 0 to This option is useful if the image is of a known gamma but not set as an image attribute e.

Write the "file gamma" which is the reciprocal of the display gamma; e. The larger the Radius the radius the slower the operation is.

This differs from the faster -blur operator in that a full 2-dimensional convolution is used to generate the weighted average of the neighboring pixels. Sets the current gravity suggestion for various other settings and options. Use -list gravity to get a complete list of -gravity settings available in your ImageMagick installation. The direction you choose specifies where to position text or subimages.

For example, a gravity of Center forces the text to be centered within the image. By default, the image gravity is undefined. See -draw for more details about graphic primitives. Only the text primitive of -draw is affected by the -gravity option.

The -gravity option is also used in concert with the -geometry setting and other settings or options that take geometry as an argument, such as the -crop option. If a -gravity setting occurs before another option or setting having a geometry argument that specifies an offset, the offset is usually applied to the point within the image suggested by the -gravity argument.

Thus, in the following command, for example, suppose the file image. The argument to -gravity is Center , which suggests the midpoint of the image, at the point , In addition, the -gravity affects the region itself, which is centered at the pixel coordinate 60, When used as an option to composite , -gravity gives the direction that the image gravitates within the composite.

When used as an option to montage , -gravity gives the direction that an image gravitates within a tile. The default gravity is Center for this purpose.

This will use one of the -intensity methods to convert the given image into a grayscale image. Note that a 'colorspace' intensity method will produce the same result regardless of the current colorpsace of the image.

But a 'mathematical' intensity method depends on the current colorspace the image is currently using. While this operation uses an -intensity method, it does not use or set the -intensity setting, so will not affect other operations that may use that setting.

A Hald color lookup table is a 3-dimensional color cube mapped to 2 dimensions. Create it with the HALD: You can apply any color transformation to the Hald image and then use this option to apply the transform to the image. This option provides a convenient method for you to use Gimp or Photoshop to make color corrections to the Hald CLUT image and subsequently apply them to multiple images using an ImageMagick script.

Note that the representation is only of the normal RGB color space and that the whole color value triplet is used for the interpolated lookup of the represented Hald color cube image. See also -clut which provides color value replacement of the individual color channels, usually involving a simpler grayscale image. Use the Hough line detector with any binary edge extracted image to locate and draw any straight lines that it finds.

The process accumulates counts for every white pixel in the binary edge image for every possible orientation for angles from 0 to in 1 deg increments and distance from the center of the image to the corners in 1 px increments. It stores the counts in an accumulator matrix of angle vs distance. Next it searches the accumulator for peaks in counts and converts the locations of the peaks to slope and intercept in the normal x,y input image space.

The lines are drawn from the given endpoints. The counts are a measure of the length of the lines. The WxH arguments specify the filter size for locating the peaks in the Hough accumulator.

The threshold excludes lines whose counts are less than the threshold value. Use -background to specify the color of the background onto which the lines will be drawn. The default is black. Use -fill to specify the color of the lines. Use -stroke and -strokewidth to specify the thickness of the lines. The default is black and no strokewidth.

A text file listing the endpoints and counts may be created by using the suffix,. Offsets, if present in the geometry specification, are handled in the same manner as the -geometry option, using X11 style to handle negative offsets.

This information is printed: Refer to MIFF for a description of the image class. If -colors is also specified, the total unique colors in the image and color reduction error values are printed.

Refer to color reduction algorithm for a description of these values. If -verbose precedes this option, copious amounts of image properties are displayed including image statistics, profiles, image histogram, and others.

It transforms a pair of magnitude and phase images from the frequency domain to a single image in the normal or spatial domain. For example, depending upon the image format used to store the result of the -fft , one would use either. The FFTW delegate library is required to use -ift.

This option takes last image in the current image sequence and inserts it at the given index. If a negative index is used, the insert position is calculated before the last image is removed from the sequence. As such -insert -1 will result in no change to the image sequence. In other words, insert the last image, at the end of the current image sequence. Consequently this has no effect on the image sequence order. ImageMagick provides a number of methods used in situations where an operator needs to determine a single grayscale value for some purpose, from an image with red, green, and blue pixel components.

Typically the RecLuma formula is used, which is the same formula used when converting images to -colorspace gray. The following formulas are currently provided, and will first convert the pixel values to linear-RGB or non-linear sRGB colorspace before being applied to calculate the final greyscale value. These intensity methods are mathematical in nature and will use the current value in the images respective R,G,B channel regardless of what that is, or what colorspace the image is currently using.

These methods are often used for other purposes, such as generating a grayscale difference image between two color images using -compose ' Difference ' composition. The method 'RMS' Root Mean Squared for example is appropriate for calculating color vector distance, from a color difference image. This is equivalent to the color only component of the -fuzz factor color compare setting. See also -grayscale which applies one of the above grayscaling formula directly to an image without setting the -intensity setting.

The -colorspace gray image conversion also uses the current intensity setting, but will always convert the image to the appropriate sRGB or linear-RGB colorspace before appling the above function.

To print a complete list of possible pixel intensity setting methods, use -list intensity. Use this option to affect the color management operation of an image see -profile. Choose from these intents: Absolute, Perceptual, Relative, Saturation. Partition is like plane except the different planes are saved to individual files e. Set the pixel color interpolation method to use when looking up a color based on a floating point or real value. When looking up the color of a pixel using a non-integer floating point value, you typically fall in between the pixel colors defined by the source image.

This setting determines how the color is determined from the colors of the pixels surrounding that point. That is how to determine the color of a point that falls between two, or even four different colored pixels. This most important for distortion operators such as -distort , -implode , -transform and -fx. See also -virtual-pixel , for control of the lookup for positions outside the boundaries of the image.

The radius is more important than the sigma. The sigma provides a bit of additional smoothing control. Use this option to assign a specific label to the image, as it is read in or created. You can use the -set operation to re-assign a the labels of images already read in. When saving an image to a PostScript file, any label assigned to an image is used as a header string to print above the postscript image. You can include the image filename, type, width, height, or other image attribute by embedding special format character.

See Format and Print Image Properties for details of the percent escape codes. You can remove all labels from an image by assigning the empty string. A label is not drawn on the image, but is embedded in the image datastream via Label tag or similar mechanism. If you want the label to be visible on the image itself, use the -draw option, or during the final processing in the creation of an image montage.

If the first character of string is , the image label is read from a file titled by the remaining characters in the string. Labels in a file are literal, no embedded formatting characters are recognized. Adaptively threshold each pixel based on the value of pixels in a surrounding window. If the current pixel is lighter than this average plus the optional offset , then it is made white, otherwise it is made black. Small variations in pixel values such as found in scanned documents can be ignored if offset is positive.

A negative offset will make it more sensitive to those small variations. This is commonly used to threshold images with an uneven background. It is based on the assumption that average color of the small window is the the local background color, from which to separate the foreground color. Perform various image operation methods to a ordered sequence of images which may represent either a set of overlaid 'image layers', a GIF disposal animation, or a fully-'coalesced' animation sequence.

The operators -coalesce , -deconstruct , -flatten , and -mosaic are only aliases for the above methods and may be depreciated in the future.

Also see -page , -repage operators, the -compose setting, and the GIF -dispose and -delay settings. Given one, two or three values delimited with commas: Gamma will do a -gamma adjustment of the values. If it is omitted, the default of 1. This provides you with direct contrast adjustments to the image.

The ' gamma ' of the resulting image will then be adjusted. That is a zero, or QuantumRange value black, and white, resp. The ' gamma ' is adjusted before the level adjustment to de-contrast the image is made. Only the channels defined by the current -channel setting are adjusted defaults to RGB color channels only , allowing you to limit the effect of this operator. Please note that the transparency channel is treated as 'matte' values 0 is opaque and not as 'alpha' values 0 is transparent.

This effectively means the colors provided to -level-colors is mapped to become 'black' and 'white' respectively, with all the other colors linearly adjusted or clipped to match that change.

Each channel is adjusted separately using the channel values of the colors specified. This can also be used to convert a plain grayscale image into a one using the gradient of colors specified. By supplying a single color with a comma separator either before or after that color, will just replace the respective 'black' or 'white' point respectively.

The value for file is in number of files. The other limits are in bytes. Define arguments for the memory, map, area, and disk resource limits with SI prefixes. By default the limits are files, 3GB of image area, 1.

These limits are adjusted relative to the available resources on your computer if this information is available. When any limit is reached, ImageMagick fails in some fashion but attempts to take compensating actions, if possible.

For example, the following limits memory:. Use -list resource to list the current limits. For example, our system shows these limits:. Requests for pixel storage to keep intermediate images are satisfied by one of three resource categories: If the total size of allocated pixel storage in the given pool reaches the corresponding limit, the request is passed to the next pool.

Additionally, requests that exceed the area limit automagically are allocated on disk. To illustrate how ImageMagick utilizes resource limits, consider a typical image resource request. First, ImageMagick tries to allocate the pixels in memory. The request might be denied if the resource request exceeds the memory limit or if the system does not honor the request. If a memory request is not honored, the pixels are allocated to disk and the file is memory-mapped. However, if the allocation request exceeds the map limit, the resource allocation goes to disk.

In all cases, if the resource request exceeds the area limit, the pixels are automagically cached to disk. If the disk has a hard limit, the program fails. In most cases you simply do not need to concern yourself with resource limits. ImageMagick chooses reasonable defaults and most images do not tax your computer resources. Where limits do come in handy is when you process images that are large or on shared systems where ImageMagick can consume all or most of the available memory.

In this case, the ImageMagick workflow slows other processes or, in extreme cases, brings the system to a halt. Under these circumstances, setting limits give some assurances that the ImageMagick workflow will not interfere with other concurrent uses of the computer.

For example, assume you have a web interface that processes images uploaded from the Internet. Now whenever a large image is processed, the pixels are automagically cached to disk instead of memory.

This of course implies that large images typically process very slowly, simply because pixel processing in memory can be an order of magnitude faster than on disk.

Because your web site users might inadvertently upload a huge image to process, you should set a disk limit as well:. In addition to command-line resource limit option, resources can be set with environment variables. Inquisitive users can try adding -debug cache to their commands and then scouring the generated output for references to the pixel cache, in order to determine how the pixel cache was allocated and how resources were consumed.

This is very similar to -contrast-stretch , and uses a 'histogram bin' to determine the range of color values that needs to be stretched. However it then stretches those colors using the -level operator. As such while the initial determination may have 'binning' round off effects, the image colors are stretched mathematically, rather than using the histogram bins.

This makes the operator more accurate. Print a list of supported arguments for various options or settings. Choose from these list types:. These lists vary depending on your version of ImageMagick. Use " -list list " to get a complete listing of all the " -list " arguments available:.

This option specifies the format for the log printed when the -debug option is active. Set iterations to zero to repeat the animation an infinite number of times, otherwise the animation repeats itself up to iterations times. The X server must support the Standard Colormap you choose, otherwise an error occurs.

Use list as the type and display searches the list of colormap types in top-to-bottom order until one is located. See xstdcmap 1 for one way of creating Standard Colormaps. You can specify as many of these components as needed in any order e. The components can repeat as well e. Specify the color to be used with the -frame option. The mean shift algorithm is iterative and thus slower the larger the window size. From those pixels, it finds which of them are within the specified squared color distance from the current mean.

It then computes a new x,y centroid from those coordinates and a new mean. This new x,y centroid is used as the center for a new window. This process is iterated until it converges and the final mean is then used to replace the original pixel value.

It repeats this process for the next pixel, etc, until it processes all pixels in the image. Results are better when using other colorspaces rather than RGB. Control the ' AE ', or absolute count of pixels that are different, with the -fuzz factor ignore pixels which only changed by a small amount. Use ' PAE ' to find the size of the -fuzz factor needed to make all pixels 'similar', while ' MAE ' determines the factor needed for about half the pixels to be similar.

Use the -list option with a ' Mode ' argument for a list of -mode arguments available in your ImageMagick installation. Vary the brightness , saturation , and hue of an image. The arguments are given as a percentages of variation. A value of means no change, and any missing values are taken to mean The brightness is a multiplier of the overall brightness of the image, so 0 means pure black, 50 is half as bright, is twice as bright.

To invert its meaning -negate the image before and after. The saturation controls the amount of color in an image. For example, 0 produce a grayscale image, while a large value such as produce a very colorful, 'cartoonish' color.

The hue argument causes a "rotation" of the colors within the image by the amount specified. For example, 50 results in a counter-clockwise rotation of 90, mapping red shades to purple, and so on. A value of either 0 or results in a complete degree rotation of the image. Using a value of is a degree rotation resulting in no change to the original image.

Use -set attribute of ' option: Both the image pixels and size are linearly interpolated to give the appearance of a metamorphosis from one image to the next, over all the images in the current image list. The added images are the equivalent of a -blend composition. The frames argument determine how many images to interpolate between each image. Blur with the given radius, standard deviation sigma , and angle. The angle given is the angle toward which the image is blurred.

That is the direction people would consider the object is coming from. Note that the blur is not uniform distribution, giving the motion a definite sense of direction of movement.

The red, green, and blue intensities of an image are negated. White becomes black, yellow becomes blue, etc. The principal function of noise peak elimination filter is to smooth the objects within an image without losing edge information and without creating undesired structures. The central idea of the algorithm is to replace a pixel with its next neighbor in value within a pixel window, if this pixel has been found to be noise.

A pixel is defined as noise if and only if this pixel is a maximum or minimum within the pixel window. Use -noise radius to specify the width of the neighborhood when reducing noise. This is equivalent to using a -statistic NonPeak operation, which should be used in preference.

Choose from these noise types:. The amount of noise added can be controlled by the -attenuate setting. If unset the value is equivalent to 1. Note that Random will replace the image with noise rather than add noise to the image. Use Uniform, if you wish to add random noise to the image.

Also see the -evaluate noise functions that allows the use of a controlling value to specify the amount of noise that should be added to an image.

The intensity values are stretched to cover the entire range of possible values. Note that as of ImageMagick 6. See -contrast-stretch for more details. Also see -auto-level for a 'perfect' normalization that is better suited to mathematically generated images. The color argument is defined using the format described under the -fill option. The -fuzz setting can be used to match and replace colors similar to the one given. The -transparent operator is exactly the same as -opaque but replaces the matching color with transparency rather than the current -fill color setting.

To ensure that it can do this it also ensures that the image has an alpha channel enabled, as per " -alpha set ", for the new transparent colors, and does not require you to modify the -channel to enable alpha channel handling. This could be used with level to do the equivalent of -posterize to reduce an image to basic primary colors.

The checks pattern produces a 3 level checkerboard dither pattern. That is a grayscale will become a pattern of solid black, solid white, and mid-tone colors into a checkerboard pattern of black and white. You can define your own threshold map for ordered dithering and halftoning your images, in either personal or system thresholds. See Resources for more details of configuration files. To print a complete list of the thresholds that have been defined, use the -list threshold option. Note that at this time the same threshold dithering map is used for all color channels, no attempt is made to offset or rotate the map for different channels is made, to create an offset printing effect.

Also as the maps are simple threshold levels, the halftone and circle maps will create incomplete circles along the edges of a colored area. Large dots can be made to look better with a small amount of blurring after being created.

For convenience you can specify the page size using media see below. Offsets can then be added as with other geometry arguments e. Use media as shorthand to specify the dimensions width x height of the PostScript page in dots per inch or a TEXT page in pixels. The choices for a PostScript page are:. This option is also used to place subimages when writing to a multi-image format that supports offsets, such as GIF89 and MNG.

When used for this purpose the offsets are always measured from the top left corner of the canvas and are not affected by the -gravity option. When writing to a MNG file, a -page option appearing ahead of the first image in the sequence with nonzero width and height defines the width and height values that are written in the MHDR chunk. Otherwise, the MNG width and height are computed from the bounding box that contains all images in the sequence. When writing a GIF89 file, only the bounding box method is used to determine its dimensions.

Use -page x , for example, to center the image within the page. If the image size exceeds the PostScript page, it is reduced to fit the page. The default gravity for the -page option is NorthWest , i. Each pixel is replaced by the most frequent color in a circular neighborhood whose width is specified with radius. The weights should typically be fractions between -1 and 1.

But the sum of weights should be 1 or at least between 0 and 1 to avoid clamping in non-hdri mode at black and white. The exponents may be positive, negative or zero. A negative exponent is equivalent to 1 divided by the image raised to the corresponding positive exponent. A zero exponent always produces 1 scaled by quantumrange to white, i. Note that one may add a constant color to the expression simply by using xc: Similarly one may add white to the expression by simply using null: Use this option to affect the preview operation of an image e.

Choose from these previews:. The command arguments has the form "module arg1 arg2 arg ImageMagick uses standard filename globbing, so wildcard expressions may be used to remove more than one profile. Here we remove all profiles from the image except for the XMP profile: Use identify -verbose to find out which profiles are in the image file.

Use -strip to remove all profiles and comments. To extract a profile, the -profile option is not used. It is important to note that results may depend on whether or not the original image already has an included profile. Also, keep in mind that -profile is an "operator" as opposed to a "setting" and therefore a conversion is made each time it is encountered, in order, in the command-line.

Furthermore, since ICC profiles are not necessarily symmetric, extra conversion steps can yield unwanted results. The default is to use the estimated quality of your input image if it can be determined, otherwise When the quality is greater than 90, then the chroma channels are not downsampled. Use the -sampling-factor option to specify the factors for chroma downsampling. For the JPEG image format, quality is mapped using a non-linear equation to the compression ratio required by the Jasper library.

This non-linear equation is intended to loosely approximate the quality provided by the JPEG v1 format. The default quality value , a request for non-lossy compression. A quality of 75 results in a request for The default PNG "quality" is 75, which means compression level 7 with adaptive PNG filtering, unless the image has a color map, in which case it means compression level 7 with no PNG filtering.

For compression level 0 quality value less than 10 , the Huffman-only strategy is used, which is fastest but not necessarily the worst compression. If filter-type is 5, adaptive filtering is used when quality is greater than 50 and the image does not have a color map, otherwise no filtering is used. Only if the output is MNG, if filter-type is 7, the LOCO color transformation intrapixel differencing and adaptive filtering with minimum-sum-of-absolute-values are used.

The quality setting has no effect on the appearance or signature of PNG and MNG images, since the compression is always lossless. Not all combinations of compression level, strategy, and PNG filter type can be obtained using the -quality option.

For more precise control, you can use the PNG: Values from the defines take precedence over values from the -quality option. It has no effect on the image appearance, since the compression is always lossless. This setting defines the colorspace used to sort out and reduce the number of colors needed by an image for later dithering by operators such as -colors , Note that color reduction also happens automatically when saving images to color-limited image file formats, such as GIF, and PNG8.

Note that this is actually a rotational blur rather than a radial and as such actually mis-named. This will create a 3-D effect. Unlike the similar -frame option, -raise does not alter the dimensions of the image.

Perform either hard or soft thresholding within some range of values in an image. This the same as using a mask used for composite masking operations, with grayscale values causing blended updates of the image the mask is attached to. Also see -clip-mask which work in the same way, but with strict boolean masking. Reduce the number of colors in an image to the colors used by this image.

If the -dither setting is enabled the default then the given colors are dithered over the image as necessary, otherwise the closest color in RGB colorspace is selected to replace that pixel in the image. As a side effect of applying a -remap of colors across all images in the current image sequence, all the images will have the same color table. That means that when saved to a file format such as GIF, it will use that color table as a single common or global color table, for all the images, without requiring extra local color tables.

This equivalent to appending all the images together without extra background colors and color reducing those images using -colors with a color limit, then -remap those colors over the original list of images. This ensures all the images follow a single color map. In that case, its only effect is to force the use of a global color table. This recommended after using either -colors or -ordered-dither to reduce the number of colors in an animated image sequence. Note, the remap image colormap has at most 8-bits of precision.

Deeper color maps are automagically coalesced with other colors to meet this requirement. The x and y offsets are treated in the same manner as in -crop. If you have more than one display application running simultaneously, use the window option to specify which application to control. This option is like -page but acts as an image operator rather than a setting.

You can separately set the canvas size or the offset of the image on that canvas by only providing those components. This useful for animation sequences. A given a canvas size of zero such as ' 0x0 ' forces it to recalculate the canvas size so the image at its current offset will appear completely on that canvas unless it has a negative offset. The -set ' page ' option can be used to directly assign virtual canvas meta-data.

Resize the image so that its rendered size remains the same as the original at the specified target resolution. Note that only a small number of image formats e. For formats which do not support an image resolution, the original resolution of the image must be specified via -density on the command line prior to specifying the resample resolution.

If this profile exists in the image, then Photoshop will continue to treat the image using its former resolution, ignoring the image resolution specified in the standard file header.

If the -filter option or -define filter: Many image processing algorithms assume your image is in a linear-light coding. If your image is gamma-corrected, you can remove the nonlinear gamma correction, apply the transform, then restore it like this:.

A negative x offset rolls the image right-to-left. A negative y offset rolls the image bottom-to-top. However, if the image is x, it is rotated by degrees. Empty triangles in the corners, left over from rotating the image, are filled with the background color.

See also the -distort operator and specifically the ' ScaleRotateTranslate ' distort method. Change the image size simply by directly sampling the pixels original from the image. When magnifying, pixels are replicated in blocks. When minifying, pixels are sub-sampled i. The results are thus equivalent to using -resize with a -filter setting of point nearest neighbor , though -sample is a lot faster, as it avoids all the filter processing of the image.

As such it completely ignores the current -filter setting. The key feature of the -sample is that no new colors will be added to the resulting image, though some colors may disappear. Offsets, if present in the geometry string, are ignored, unlike -resize. The actual sampling point is the middle of the sub-region being sampled. As such a single pixel sampling of an image will take the middle pixel, or top-left-middle if image has even dimensions.

However the -define ' sample: By default this value is ' 50 ' for the midpoint, but could be set to ' 0 ' for top-left, ' ' for bottom-right, or with separate X and Y offsets such as ' 0x50 ' for left-middle edge of sampling sub-region.

This option specifies the sampling factors to be used by the JPEG encoder for chroma downsampling. If this option is omitted, the JPEG library will use its own default values.

Change the image size simply by replacing pixels by averaging pixels together when minifying, or replacing pixels when magnifying. The results are thus equivalent to using -resize with a -filter setting of box.

Though it is a lot faster, as it avoids all the filter processing of the image. If when shrinking minifying images the original image is some integer multiple of the new image size, the number of pixels averaged together to produce the new pixel color is the same across the whole image. This is a special case known as 'binning' and is often used as a method of reducing noise in image such as those generated by digital cameras, especially in low light conditions.

This option indicates that the GetImage request used to obtain the image should be done on the root window, rather than directly on the specified window. In this way, you can obtain pieces of other windows that overlap the specified window, and more importantly, you can capture menus or other popups that are independent windows but appear over the specified window. Segment an image by analyzing the histograms of the color components and identifying units that are homogeneous with the fuzzy c-means technique.

This is part of the ImageMagick color quantization routines. Specify cluster threshold as the number of pixels in each cluster that must exceed the cluster threshold to be considered valid. Smoothing threshold eliminates noise in the second derivative of the histogram. As the value is increased, you can expect a smoother second derivative.

The default is 1. If the -verbose setting is defined, a detailed report of the color clusters is returned. Blurs those pixels that are less than or equal to the threshold in contrast.

The threshold may be expressed as a fraction of QuantumRange or as a percentage. Specify the channel with -channel. This option applies a special effect to the image, similar to the effect achieved in a photo darkroom by sepia toning. Threshold ranges from 0 to QuantumRange and is a measure of the extent of the sepia toning. This will assign or modify specific settings attached to all the images in the current image sequence. For example, it will modify specific well known image meta-data 'attributes' such as those normally overridden by: If the given key does not match a specific known 'attribute ', such as shown above, the setting is stored as a a free form 'property' string.

Such settings are listed in -verbose information " info: This includes string 'properties' that are set by and assigned to images using the options -comment , -label , -caption. These options actually assign a global 'artifact' which are automatically assigned and any Format Percent Escapes expanded to images as they are read in.

The set value can also make use of Format and Print Image Properties in the defined value. Other well known 'properties' that are available include: The -repage operator will also allow you to modify the ' page ' attribute of an image for images already in memory also see -page.

However it is designed to provide a finer control of the sub-parts of this 'attribute'. The -set page option will only provide a direct, unmodified assignment of ' page ' attribute.

Some 'properties' must be defined in a specific way to be used. For example only 'properties' prefixed with " filename: If the setting value is prefixed with " option: As such settings are global in scope, they can be used to pass 'attributes' and 'properties' of one specific image, in a way that allows you to use them in a completely different image, even if the original image has long since been modified or destroyed.

Note that Format Percent Escapes will only match a 'artifact' if the given key does not match an existing 'attribute' or 'property'. You can set the attributes of the image registry by prefixing the value with registry: The -set profile option can also be used to inject previously-formatted ancillary chunks into the output PNG file, using the commandline option as shown below or by setting the profile via a programming interface:. This encoder will compute the chunk length and CRC, so those must not be included in the file.

If you want to write multiple chunks of the same type, then add a short unique string after the "x" to prevent subsequent profiles from overwriting the preceding ones, e. Specify azimuth and elevation as the position of the light source. This option specifies whether the utility should attempt to use shared memory for pixmaps. Otherwise, this option is ignored. The default is True. The size portion of the geometry argument specifies the width of the region to be removed from both sides of the image and the height of the regions to be removed from top and bottom.

The shear angles may be positive, negative, or zero. When Ydegrees is omitted it defaults to 0. When both angles are given, the horizontal component of the shear is performed before the vertical component. Shearing slides one edge of an image along the x-axis or y-axis i. The amount of each is controlled by the respective shear angle.

Empty triangles left over from shearing the image are filled with the color defined by the -background option. The horizontal shear is performed before the vertical part. This is important to note, since horizontal and vertical shears do not commute , i. For example, the following two commands are not equivalent. The first of the two commands above is equivalent to the following, except for the amount of empty space created; the command that follows generates a smaller image, and so is a better choice in terms of time and space.

Increase the contrast of the image using a sigmoidal transfer function without saturating highlights or shadows. Contrast indicates how much to increase the contrast. For example, 0 is none, 3 is typical and 20 is a lot.

Note the use of '0' fo rthe mid-point of the sigmoidal curve. Using a very high contrast will produce a sort of 'smoothed thresholding' of the image. Not as sharp with high aliasing effects of a true threshold, but with tapered gray-levels around the threshold mid-point. This option is only used by the import tool.

If this setting is used, then the search will stop as soon as it finds a match whose metric is less than or equal to the value. A partially filled second output image will result.

Using a value of zero, will cause the search to stop at the first perfect match it finds. If this setting is left off, then the search will proceed to completion or as limited by -dissimilarity-threshold. In addition to width and height, use -size with an offset to skip any header information in the image or tell the number of colors in a MAP image file, e. Sketch with the given radius, standard deviation sigma , and angle. The angle given is the angle toward which the image is sketched. Any empty space will be filled with the -background color.

For zero offset and transparent images, the non-transparent parts of the two images will be aligned as close as possible without overlapping.

Use this option to grab more than one image from the X server screen, to create an animation sequence. This option produces a solarization effect seen when exposing a photographic film to light during the development process.

The points are placed according to the images location on the virtual canvas -page or -repage offset , and do not actually have to exist on the given image, but may be some point beyond the edge of the image. All points are floating point values. Typically transparency channel is turned off either before or after the operation. Of course if some color points are transparent to generate a transparent gradient, then the image also requires transparency enabled to store the values.

All the above methods when given a single point of color will replace all the colors in the image with the color given, regardless of the point. This is logical, and provides an alternative technique to recolor an image to some default value.

This will add rows and columns of the current -background color into the given image according to the given -gravity geometry setting. Essentially -splice will divide the image into four quadrants, separating them by the inserted rows and columns. If a dimension of geometry is zero no rows or columns will be added for that dimension. Similarly using a zero offset with the appropriate -gravity setting will add rows and columns to the edges of the image, padding the image only along that one edge.

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